Danijela Ašperger1, Bruna Babić1, Dijana Cerić2, Tomislav Bolanča1
1University of Zagreb, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Marulićev trg 19, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Pharmaceuticals are used in human and veterinary practice and are so-called emerging contaminants. Their occurrence in the environment is still not law regulated, while certain number of published articles record their negative impact on human health. From the literature overview, pharmaceuticals were determined in different environment samples, but little bit less in here examined sediment. Sediment acts like a potential receiver for many hazardous substances including pharmaceuticals who can be easily emitted to drinking water reservoirs depending on the sediment characteristics . In this work pharmaceuticals who belong to different structure groups were determined in sediment sample and following five extractions were developed and optimized: extraction by agitation (EA), ultrasound solvent extraction (USE), microwave assisted extraction (MAE), matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) and pressurized solvent extraction (PSE). Chosen pharmaceuticals were tylosine as macrolide antibiotic, albendazole, febantel and levamisole as antihelmintics, lidocaine and procaine as anesthetics and hydrocortisone and dexamethasone as glucocorticoids. Pharmaceutical concentrations extracted from sediment sample were determined by high performance liquid chromatography using diode array detector. After chromatographic analysis, all methods were validated and the following optimal parameters were determined for each extraction method: sediment mass, solvent, contact time between sediment and solvent, extraction duration, agitation frequency and extraction temperature (EA); solvent, extraction duration, power and temperature of ultrasonic bath (USE); solvent, extraction duration, temperature, solvent volume (MAE); sorbent, solvent, solvent volume, sediment/sorbent mass ratio (MSPD); solvent (PLE) .
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This paper was prepared as part of the project Advanced Water Treatment Technologies for Microplastics Removal (IP-2019-04-9661, AdWaTMiR).