Virginia Coman1, Simion Beldean-Galea2
1Babeş-Bolyai University, Raluca Ripan Institute for Research in Chemistry, Fântânele 30, 400294 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
The extraction stage of the compounds from a matrix is very important for the results of the final analysis because it can generate many errors, waste and health problems. Therefore, the principles of green chemistry in analytical chemistry aim to significantly reduce the waste generated by the analyses . Due to the toxicity of solvents, various extraction methods have been developed in recent years to significantly reduce or completely remove the amount of solvents used to extract the compounds from the matrix . The miniaturized extraction (microextraction) methods offer certain advantages: low amounts (microliters) of solvents, small amount of sample to be analysed, reduced extraction time, high enrichment factor (order of hundreds), and high selectivity and precision. Due to these benefits, these methods have developed rapidly and are applied to various classes of organic and inorganic compounds in different liquid or solid matrices . This review is a state-of-the-art of the applications of the liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) in the analysis of pharmaceuticals (anti-inflammatories, antidepressants, antibiotics, hormones, anti-cancer drugs, etc.) in biological fluids (serum, urine, saliva, etc.) and environmental (waters, sediments) samples. Our work is focused on the theoretical aspects of LPME and the applications of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet and hollow fiber microextraction. Aspects related to the analysis techniques (gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis) coupled with different detectors following the microextraction stage are also presented. A critical comparison is made between microextraction techniques and extraction techniques used for routine analysis to provide a viable and greener alternative.
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